Kinematics is the modeling of the relationship between the position, velocities and accelerations of the link of a manipulator. Kinematics concerns the study of motion of bodies without reference to forces that cause the motion.

Object Manipulation
Manipulation is the skilful handling and treating of objects: picking them up, moving them, fixing them one to another, and working on them with tools. Before we can program a robot to perform such operations, we require a method of specifying where the object is relative to the robot gripper, and a way of
controlling the motion of the gripper.

Kinematic Model
Before a robot can move its hand to an object, the object must be located relative to it.  There is currently no simple method for measuring the location of a robot hand. Most robots calculate the position of their
hand using a kinematic model of their arm.

Forward Kinematics will enable us to determine where the robot’s hand will be if all joint variables are known.

Inverse Kinematics will enable us to calculate what each joint variable must be if we desire the hand to be located at a particular point and have a particular orientation.

Transformations of frames introduced to make modeling the relocation of objects easier.
An object is described with respect to a frame located in the object, and this frame is relocated with a transformation.

The transformation is the result of a sequence of rotations and translations, which are recorded with a transformation equation.